Resource Recovery

Seawater, ground water, desalination brines, and produced water all contain useful minerals. Our group is interested in technology to recover salts, metals, and industrial chemicals. We have explored selective electrodialysis, direct electrosynthesis, bipolar membrane electrodialysis, and zero-liquid discharge hybrid systems for this purpose.

Selected Papers of Resource Recovery from Saline Water

Y.D. Ahdab, D. Rehman, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Brackish water desalination for greenhouses: improving groundwater quality using monovalent selective electrodialysis,” J. Membrane Sci., accepted for publication, 15 March 2020.

K.G. Nayar and J.H. Lienhard V, “Brackish water desalination for greenhouse agriculture: comparing the costs of RO, CCRO, EDR, and monovalent-selective EDR,” Desalination, online 8 November 2019, 475:114188, 1 February 2020. (doi link) (preprint)

A. Kumar, H. Fukuda, T.A. Hatton, J.H. Lienhard V, “Lithium Recovery from Oil and Gas Produced Water: A Need for Growing Energy Industry,” ACS Energy Letters, 4:1471-1474, 5 June 2019. (OPEN ACCESS)

A. Kumar, K.R. Phillips, J. Cai, U. Schröder, J.H. Lienhard V, “Integrated valorization of desalination brine via NaOH production: opportunities and challenges,” Angewandte Chemie Intl. Ed., online 21 Feb. 2019, 58(20):6502–6511, 13 May 2019. (doi link) (preprint)

Schematic illustration of different sources of brine for the DE-BMED process.

Schematic illustration of different sources of brine for the DE-BMED process. At top right, brine is produced through desalinating seawater. At bottom, salt brines are created by desalinating brackish ground water or through salt mining. Finally, on the left-hand side, treated industrial waste water effluent may also produce brine as a by-product (Kumar et al., Nature Catalysis, 2019)

A. Kumar, K.R. Phillips, G.P. Thiel, U. Schröder, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Direct electrosynthesis of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid from brine streams,” Nature Catalysis, online 13 Feb. 2019, 2(2):106–113, February 2019. (doi link) (shareit) (preprint)

K.G. Nayar, J. Fernandes, R.K. McGovern, B.S. Al-Anzi, J.H. Lienhard V, “Cost and energy needs of RO-ED crystallizer systems for zero brine discharge seawater desalination,” Desalination, online 8 February 2019, 457:115-132, 1 May 2019. (doi link) (preprint)

K.G. Nayar, J. Fernandes, R.K. McGovern, K.P. Dominguez, A. McCance, B.S. Al-Anzi, J.H. Lienhard V, “Cost and energy requirements of hybrid RO and ED brine concentration systems for salt production,” Desalination, online 29 January 2019, 456:97-120, 15 April 2019. (doi link) (preprint)

F. Du, D.M. Warsinger, T.I. Urmi, G.P. Thiel, A. Kumar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine: process design and energy efficiency,” Environmental Science & Technology, 52(10):5949–5958, 18 April 2018. (doi link) (Free reprints)

G.P. Thiel, A. Kumar, A. Gómez-González, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Utilization of Seawater Desalination Brine for Sodium Hydroxide Production: Technologies, Engineering Principles, Recovery Limits and Future Directions,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, online 7 Nov. 2017, 5(12):11147–11162, 2017. (doi link) (eprints) (preprint)