Research Overview

The activities of our group are in the broad area of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid dynamics. Our focus is on technologies for desalination of seawater and brackish water, remediation of various waste waters, and recycling of water, with increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact as core objectives. This work includes thermodynamic cycle analysis, transport processes in components, solar-energy driven systems, and both thermal and membrane separations.

Past activities in our lab have included: convection and fluid dynamics in liquid jet impingement; high heat flux engineering; thermally stratified turbulent flow and instrumentation; electronics thermal management; and thermally driven instabilities.

Selected Publications


Recent Papers (last 10)
S. Cao, A. Deshmukh, L. Wang, Q. Han, Y. Shu, L. Long, C.Y. Tang, H.Y. Ng, Z. Wang, J.H. Lienhard V, “Monolayer MoS2 interlayered Thin-film Composite Membrane Based on Thickness Control,” Environmental Science & Technology, accepted for publication, 2 May 2022.

G. Vaartstra, Z. Lu, J.H. Lienhard V, and E.N. Wang, “Revisiting the Schrage Equation for Kinetically-Limited Evaporation and Condensation,” Journal of Heat Transfer, online 21 April 2022. (doi)

P.R. Gupta, S.P. Shanmukham, S. Patel, J.H. Lienhard V, J. Swaminathan, “Replacing chloride anions in dyeing enables cheaper effluent concentration and recycling,” Desalination, online 20 April 2022, 533:115761, 1 July 2022. (doi) (free to read)

A. Deshmukh, Z.H. Foo, C.C. Stetson, H. Lee, C.J. Orme, A.D. Wilson, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamics of Solvent-Driven Water Extraction from Hypersaline Brines by Dimethyl Ether,” Chemical Engineering Journal, online 13 January 2022, 434:134391, 15 April 2022. (doi) (preprint)

A. Kumar, F. Du, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Caustic Production, Energy Efficiency, and Electrolyzers,” ACS Energy Letters, online 15 September 2021, 6(10):3563−3566, 8 October 2021. (doi) (free to read)

Z.H. Foo, D. Rehman, O.Z. Coombs, A. Deshmukh, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Multicomponent Fickian Solution-Diffusion Model for Osmotic Transport through Membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, online 7 September 2021, 640:119819, 15 December 2021. (doi) (preprint)

A. Kumar, Y. Kim, X. Su, H. Fukuda, G. Naidu, F. Du, S. Vigneswaran, E. Drioli, T.A. Hatton, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Advances and Challenges in Metal Ion Separations from Water,” Trends in Chemistry, online 26 August 2021, 3(10):819-831, 1 October 2021. (doi)

A.T. Bouma, Q. J. Wei, J.E. Parsons, J. Buongiorno, and J.H. Lienhard V, Water for a Warming Climate: A Feasibility Study of Repurposing Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant for Desalination, MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR) Working Paper #2021-012 and Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems (CANES) Report MIT-NES-TR-020, July 2021. (CEEPR report) (CANES report)

Y.D. Ahdab, G. Schücking, D. Rehman, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Cost effectiveness of conventional and solar powered monovalent selective electrodialysis for seawater desalination in greenhouses,” Applied Energy, online 20 July 2021, 301:117425, 1 November 2021. (doi) (preprint)

A. Kumar, G. Naidu, H. Fukuda, F. Du, S. Vigneswaran, E. Drioli, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Metals Recovery from Seawater Desalination Brines: Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, online 1 June 2021, 9(23):7704-7712, 1 June 2021. (doi)

Spotlight Publications
J.H. Lienhard V, “Heat transfer in flat-plate boundary layers: a correlation for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow,” J. Heat Transfer, online 31 March 2020, 142(6):061805, June 2020. (doi: Open access) (presentation) (one-page summary) (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy savings in desalination technologies: reducing entropy generation by transport processes,” J. Heat Transfer, online 17 May 17 2019, 141(7):072001, July 2019. (doi link) (preprint) This paper provides an overview of much of our work on balancing and equipartitioning.

J.H. Lienhard V, C. Madramootoo, E. Monier, R.J. Robins, G. Sixt (eds.), Climate Change, Agriculture, Water, and Food Security: What We Know and Don’t Know, Report of a workshop conducted at MIT by the Abdul Latif Jameel World Water and Food Security Lab, May 8–9, 2018. Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 2019. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Humidification-dehumidification desalination,” in Desalination: Water from Water, 2nd edition, Chpt.9. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Scrivener, 2019. ISBN 978-1-119-40774-4. (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Exterior shape factors from interior shape factors,” J. Heat Transfer, online 20 Feb. 2019, 141(6):061301, June 2019. (OPEN ACCESS) (preprint) (presentation)Conformally mapping heat conduction solution from a rectangle to a disk to exterior of disk

J.H. Lienhard V, “Linearization of Non-gray Radiation Exchange: The Internal Fractional Function Reconsidered,” J. Heat Transfer, online 3 Dec. 2018, 141(5):052701, May 2019. (OPEN ACCESS) (presentation)

J.H. Lienhard V, K.H. Mistry, M.H. Sharqawy, and G.P. Thiel, “Thermodynamics, Exergy,
and Energy Efficiency in Desalination Systems,” in Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach, Chpt. 4, H.A. Arafat, ed. Elsevier Publishing Co., 23 June 2017. (URL) (preprint)

C.H. Oh, J.H. Lienhard V, H.F. Younis, R.S. Dahbura, and D. Michels, “Liquid Jet-Array Cooling Modules for High Heat Fluxes,” AIChE Journal, 44(4):769-779, 1998. (PDF file)
Heat flux of 1.7 kW/cm2 by forced convection using liquid jet arrays.

S.K. Bhunia and J.H. Lienhard V, “Surface Disturbance Evolution and the Splattering of Turbulent Liquid Jets,” J. Fluids Engineering, 116:(4):721-727, 1994. (pdf)
Discover the k-19/3 spectrum!

X. Liu and J.H. Lienhard V, “Extremely High Heat Fluxes Beneath Impinging Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, Vol.115, No.2, 1993, pp.472-476.
Heat flux of ~40 kW/cm2 beneath a high speed impinging liquid jet.

And Some Popular Publications
K.G. Nayar, M.H. Sharqawy, L.D. Banchik, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermophysical properties of seawater: A review and new correlations that include pressure dependence,” online 7 April 2016, Desalination, 390:1-24, 15 July 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel, E.W. Tow, L.D. Banchik, H.W. Chung, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction,” Desalination, 366:94-112, 15 June 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, E. Guillen, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Scaling and Fouling In Membrane Distillation for Desalination Applications: A Review,” Desalination, 356:294-313, 15 January 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination,” J. Membrane Sci., 469:245-250, Nov. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

D. Cohen-Tanugi, R.K. McGovern, S. Dave, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.C. Grossman, “Quantifying the Potential of Ultra-permeable Membranes for Water Desalination,” Energy Environ. Sci., 7(3):1134-1141, Feb. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

A.K. Plappally and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Requirements for Water Production, Treatment, End Use, Reclamation, and Discharge,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7):4818-4848, Sept. 2012. (doi link)

K.H. Mistry, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, E.K. Summers, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation analysis of desalination technologies,” Entropy, 13(10):1829-1864, Sept. 2011 (pdf).
Received Best Paper Award

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, “The potential of solar-driven humidification-dehumidification desalination for small-scale decentralized water production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4):1187-1201, May 2010. (doi link) (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “The thermophysical properties of seawater: A review of existing correlations and data,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:354-380, April 2010. (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Thermodynamic analysis of humidification-dehumidification desalination cycles,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:339-353, April 2010. (pdf)

A.E. Bergles, J.H. Lienhard V, G.E. Kendall, and P. Griffith, “Boiling and Evaporation in Small Diameter Channels,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 24(1):18-40, 2003. (pdf)

X. Liu, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.S. Lombara, “Convective Heat Transfer by Impingement of Circular Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, 113(3):571-582, 1991. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V and C.W. Van Atta, “The decay of turbulence in thermally stratified flow,” J. Fluid Mechanics, 210:57-112, Jan. 1990. (pdf) (Link to details) (doi)