Research Overview

The activities of our group are in the broad area of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid dynamics. Our focus is on technologies for desalination of seawater and brackish water, remediation of various waste waters, and recycling of water, with increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact as core objectives. This work includes thermodynamic cycle analysis, transport processes in components, solar-energy driven systems, and both thermal and membrane separations.

Past activities in our lab have included: convection and fluid dynamics in liquid jet impingement; high heat flux engineering; thermally stratified turbulent flow and instrumentation; electronics thermal management; and thermally driven instabilities.

Selected Publications

Recent Journal Papers (last 10)
Y.D. Ahdab and J.H. Lienhard V, “Desalination of brackish groundwater to improve water quality and water supply,” in Global Groundwater: Source, Scarcity, Sustainability, Security and Solutions, Chpt. 41, A. Mukherji et al., eds. Elsevier, October 2020. ISBN 978-0-128-18172-0. (preprint)

Y.D. Ahdab, D. Rehman, G. Schücking, M. Barbosa, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Treating irrigation water using high-performance membranes for monovalent selective electrodialysis,” ACS ES&T—Water, doi:10.1021/acsestwater.0c00012, online 15 September 2020.

A.T. Bouma, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Metrics matter: accurately defining energy efficiency in desalination,” J. Heat Transfer, online 28 August 2020, 142(12):122101, December 2020. (doi) (preprint)

J.S. McNally, Z.H. Foo, A. Deshmukh, C.J. Orme, J.H. Lienhard V, A.D. Wilson, “Solute displacement in the aqueous phase of water-NaCl-organic ternary mixtures relevant to solvent-driven water treatment,” RSC Advances, 49(10):29516, 10 August 2020. (doi: Open access)

Y. Roy and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the presence of solute-solvent coupling in reverse osmosis,” J. Membrane Sci., online 20 June 2020, 611:118272, 1 October 2020. (doi link) (free reprints) (preprint)

Y.D. Ahdab, D. Rehman, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Brackish water desalination for greenhouses: improving groundwater quality for irrigation using monovalent selective electrodialysis reversal,” J. Membrane Sci., online 26 March 2020, 610:118072, 1 September 2020. (doi link) (free reprints) (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Heat transfer in flat-plate boundary layers: a correlation for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow,” J. Heat Transfer, online 31 March 2020, 142(6):061805, June 2020. (doi: Open access) (presentation) (one-page summary) (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Water Security for All,” World Energy, Yr. 11, No. 46, pp. 58–63, March 2020. (online) (preprint)

Q.J. Wei, C.I. Tucker, P.J. Wu, A. Trueworthy, E.W. Tow, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Impact of salt retention on true batch reverse osmosis energy consumption: experiments and model validation,” Desalination, online 3 February 2020, 479:114177, 1 April 2020. (doi link) (free reprints) (preprint)

Z. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Zhao, B. Li, B. Bhatia, K. Wilke, Y. Song, O. Labban, J.H. Lienhard V, R.Z. Wang, E.N. Wang, “Ultrahigh-efficiency desalination via a thermally-localized multistage solar still,” Energy & Environmental Sci., online 20 Jan. 2020, 13(3):830-839, 2020. (doi: Open access) (preprint)

Spotlight Publications

J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy savings in desalination technologies: reducing entropy generation by transport processes,” J. Heat Transfer, online 17 May 17 2019, 141(7):072001, July 2019. (doi link) (preprint) This paper provides an overview of much of our work on balancing and equipartitioning.

J.H. Lienhard V, C. Madramootoo, E. Monier, R.J. Robins, G. Sixt (eds.), Climate Change, Agriculture, Water, and Food Security: What We Know and Don’t Know, Report of a workshop conducted at MIT by the Abdul Latif Jameel World Water and Food Security Lab, May 8–9, 2018. Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 2019. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Humidification-dehumidification desalination,” in Desalination: Water from Water, 2nd edition, Chpt.9. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Scrivener, 2019. ISBN 978-1-119-40774-4. (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Exterior shape factors from interior shape factors,” J. Heat Transfer, online 20 Feb. 2019, 141(6):061301, June 2019. (OPEN ACCESS) (preprint) (presentation)Conformally mapping heat conduction solution from a rectangle to a disk to exterior of disk

J.H. Lienhard V, “Linearization of Non-gray Radiation Exchange: The Internal Fractional Function Reconsidered,” J. Heat Transfer, online 3 Dec. 2018, 141(5):052701, May 2019. (OPEN ACCESS) (presentation)

J.H. Lienhard V, K.H. Mistry, M.H. Sharqawy, and G.P. Thiel, “Thermodynamics, Exergy,
and Energy Efficiency in Desalination Systems,” in Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach, Chpt. 4, H.A. Arafat, ed. Elsevier Publishing Co., 23 June 2017. (URL) (preprint)

C.H. Oh, J.H. Lienhard V, H.F. Younis, R.S. Dahbura, and D. Michels, “Liquid Jet-Array Cooling Modules for High Heat Fluxes,” AIChE Journal, 44(4):769-779, 1998. (PDF file)
Heat flux of 1.7 kW/cm2 by forced convection using liquid jet arrays.

S.K. Bhunia and J.H. Lienhard V, “Surface Disturbance Evolution and the Splattering of Turbulent Liquid Jets,” J. Fluids Engineering, 116:(4):721-727, 1994. (pdf)
Discover the k-19/3 spectrum!

X. Liu and J.H. Lienhard V, “Extremely High Heat Fluxes Beneath Impinging Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, Vol.115, No.2, 1993, pp.472-476.
Heat flux of ~40 kW/cm2 beneath a high speed impinging liquid jet.

And Ten More Popular Publications
G.P. Thiel, E.W. Tow, L.D. Banchik, H.W. Chung, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction,” Desalination, 366:94-112, 15 June 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, E. Guillen, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Scaling and Fouling In Membrane Distillation for Desalination Applications: A Review,” Desalination, 356:294-313, 15 January 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination,” J. Membrane Sci., 469:245-250, Nov. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

A.K. Plappally and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Requirements for Water Production, Treatment, End Use, Reclamation, and Discharge,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7):4818-4848, Sept. 2012. (doi link)

K.H. Mistry, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, E.K. Summers, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation analysis of desalination technologies,” Entropy, 13(10):1829-1864, Sept. 2011 (pdf).
Received Best Paper Award

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, “The potential of solar-driven humidification-dehumidification desalination for small-scale decentralized water production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4):1187-1201, May 2010. (doi link) (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “The thermophysical properties of seawater: A review of existing correlations and data,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:354-380, April 2010. (pdf)

A.E. Bergles, J.H. Lienhard V, G.E. Kendall, and P. Griffith, “Boiling and Evaporation in Small Diameter Channels,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 24(1):18-40, 2003. (pdf)

X. Liu, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.S. Lombara, “Convective Heat Transfer by Impingement of Circular Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, 113(3):571-582, 1991. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V and C.W. Van Atta, “The decay of turbulence in thermally stratified flow,” J. Fluid Mechanics, 210:57-112, Jan. 1990. (pdf) (Link to details) (doi)