Research Overview

The activities of our group are in the broad area of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid dynamics. Our focus is on technologies for desalination of seawater and brackish water, remediation of various waste waters, and recycling of water, with increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact as core objectives. This work includes thermodynamic cycle analysis, transport processes in components, solar-energy driven systems, and both thermal and membrane separations.

Past activities in our lab have included: convection and fluid dynamics in liquid jet impingement; high heat flux engineering; thermally stratified turbulent flow and instrumentation; electronics thermal management; and thermally driven instabilities.

Selected Publications


Recent Journal Papers
A.D. Wilson, Z.H. Foo, A.S. Jayasinghe, C. Stetson, H. Lee, H.W. Rollins, A. Deshmukh, C. Orme, and J.H. Lienhard, “Modeling Henry’s Law and Phase Separations of Water-NaCl-Organic Mixtures with Solvation and Ion-Pairing,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, accepted for publication, 20 September 2023. (doi) (doi) Cover article and selected as a 2023 PCCP HOT Article.

Z.H. Foo, J.B. Thomas, S.M. Heath, J.A. Garcia, and J.H. Lienhard, “Sustainable Lithium Recovery from Hypersaline Salt-lakes by Selective Electrodialysis: Transport and Thermodynamics,” Environmental Science & Technology, online 18 September 2023. (doi)

Y. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Shu, Q. Han, B. Chen, M. Wang, X. Liu, D. Rehman, B. Liu, Z.Wang, J.H. Lienhard, “Selective Recovery of Gold from E-wastewater Using Poly-m-phenylenediamine Nanoparticles and Assembled Membrane,” ACS Applied Engineering Materials, online 3 August 2023. (doi)

D. Rehman, F. Sheriff, and J.H. Lienhard, “Uncertainty quantification and transport modelling for metals recovery using nanofiltration,” Water Research, online 11 July 2023,243:120325, 1 Sept. 2023. (doi)

Z.H. Foo, D. Rehman, A.T. Bouma, S. Monsalvo, and J.H. Lienhard, “Lithium Concentration from Salt-lake Brine by Donnan-enhanced Nanofiltration,” Environmental Science & Technology, online 7 April 2023, 57(15):6320–6330, April 2023. (doi)

J.H. Lienhard, “Steady two-dimensional conduction: simple and double layer potentials, corner singularities, and induced heat flux,” ASME Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, online 29 September 2022, 145(3):031401, March 2023. (open access) (preprint)

Z.H. Foo, C. Stetson, E. Dach, A. Deshmukh, H. Lee, A.K. Menon, R.Prasher, N.Y. Yip, J.H. Lienhard, and A.D. Wilson, “Solvent-Driven Aqueous Separations for Hypersaline Brine Concentration and Resource Recovery,” Trends in Chemistry, online 7 October 2022, 4(12):1078-1093, 1 December 2022. (open access)

D. Rehman and J.H. Lienhard, “Global optimization for accurate and efficient parameter estimation in nanofiltration,” Journal of Membrane Science Letters, 2:100034, 11 September 2022. (open access) (preprint)

A.T. Bouma, Q.J. Wei, J.E. Parsons, J. Buongiorno, and J.H. Lienhard, “Energy and water without carbon: Integrated desalination and nuclear power at Diablo Canyon,” Applied Energy, online 13 July 2022, 323:119612, 1 October 2022. (doi) (preprint)

G. Vaartstra, Z. Lu, J.H. Lienhard V, and E.N. Wang, “Revisiting the Schrage Equation for Kinetically-Limited Evaporation and Condensation,” Journal of Heat Transfer, online 21 April 2022J, 144(8):080802, August 2022. (doi) (preprint)

Spotlight Publications

Z.H. Foo, D. Rehman, O.Z. Coombs, A. Deshmukh, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Multicomponent Fickian Solution-Diffusion Model for Osmotic Transport through Membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, online 7 September 2021, 640:119819, 15 December 2021. (doi) (preprint)

A. Kumar, Y. Kim, X. Su, H. Fukuda, G. Naidu, F. Du, S. Vigneswaran, E. Drioli, T.A. Hatton, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Advances and Challenges in Metal Ion Separations from Water,” Trends in Chemistry, online 26 August 2021, 3(10):819-831, 1 October 2021. (doi) (preprint)

A. Kumar, G. Naidu, H. Fukuda, F. Du, S. Vigneswaran, E. Drioli, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Metals Recovery from Seawater Desalination Brines: Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, online 1 June 2021, 9(23):7704-7712, 1 June 2021. (doi) (preprint) (corrected figures)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Heat transfer in flat-plate boundary layers: a correlation for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow,” J. Heat Transfer, online 31 March 2020, 142(6):061805, June 2020. (doi: Open access) (presentation) (one-page summary) (preprint)

T. Altmann, J. Robert, A.T. Bouma, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Primary Energy and Exergy of Desalination Technologies,” Applied Energy, online 17 June 2019, 252:113319, 15 October 2019. (doi link) (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy savings in desalination technologies: reducing entropy generation by transport processes,” J. Heat Transfer, online 17 May 17 2019, 141(7):072001, July 2019. (doi link) (preprint) This paper provides an overview of much of our work on balancing and equipartitioning.

J.H. Lienhard V, “Linearization of Non-gray Radiation Exchange: The Internal Fractional Function Reconsidered,” J. Heat Transfer, online 3 Dec. 2018, 141(5):052701, May 2019. (OPEN ACCESS)
For small temperature differences (e.g., internal to a spacecraft), linearization requires a different fractional function

K.G. Nayar, J. Fernandes, R.K. McGovern, K.P. Dominguez, A. McCance, B.S. Al-Anzi, J.H. Lienhard V, “Cost and energy requirements of hybrid RO and ED brine concentration systems for salt production,” Desalination, online 29 January 2019, 456:97-120, 15 April 2019. (doi link) (preprint)

A. Kumar, K.R. Phillips, G.P. Thiel, U. Schröder, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Direct electrosynthesis of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid from brine streams,” Nature Catalysis, online 13 Feb. 2019, 2(2):106–113, February 2019. (doi link) (shareit) (preprint)

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Unpacking compaction: effect of hydraulic pressure on alginate fouling,” J. Membrane Sci., online 8 Sept. 2017, 544C:221-233, 15 Dec. 2017. (doi link) (preprint)
High pressure does not cause foulant compaction

E.K. Summers and J.H. Lienhard V,  “Experimental Study of Thermal Performance in Air Gap Membrane Distillation Systems including Direct Solar Heating of Membranes,” Desalination, 330:100-111, December 2013. (doi link) (preprint)
First measurements of direct solar heating of MD membranes

D. Michels, J. Hadeler, and J.H. Lienhard V, “High Heat Flux Resistance Heaters from VPS and HVOF Thermal Spraying,” Exptl. Heat Transfer, Vol.11, 1998, pp.341-359. (doi) (preprint)
Heat flux of 1.7 kW/cm2 by convection alone

S.K. Bhunia and J.H. Lienhard V, “Surface Disturbance Evolution and the Splattering of Turbulent Liquid Jets,” J. Fluids Engineering, 116:(4):721-727, 1994. (pdf)
Discover the k-19/3 spectrum!

X. Liu and J.H. Lienhard V, “Extremely High Heat Fluxes Beneath Impinging Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, Vol.115, No.2, 1993, pp.472-476.
Heat flux of ~40 kW/cm2 beneath a high speed impinging liquid jet.

And Some Popular Publications
K.G. Nayar, M.H. Sharqawy, L.D. Banchik, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermophysical properties of seawater: A review and new correlations that include pressure dependence,” online 7 April 2016, Desalination, 390:1-24, 15 July 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel, E.W. Tow, L.D. Banchik, H.W. Chung, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction,” Desalination, 366:94-112, 15 June 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, E. Guillen, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Scaling and Fouling In Membrane Distillation for Desalination Applications: A Review,” Desalination, 356:294-313, 15 January 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination,” J. Membrane Sci., 469:245-250, Nov. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

D. Cohen-Tanugi, R.K. McGovern, S. Dave, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.C. Grossman, “Quantifying the Potential of Ultra-permeable Membranes for Water Desalination,” Energy Environ. Sci., 7(3):1134-1141, Feb. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

A.K. Plappally and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Requirements for Water Production, Treatment, End Use, Reclamation, and Discharge,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7):4818-4848, Sept. 2012. (doi link)

K.H. Mistry, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, E.K. Summers, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation analysis of desalination technologies,” Entropy, 13(10):1829-1864, Sept. 2011 (pdf).
Received Best Paper Award

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, “The potential of solar-driven humidification-dehumidification desalination for small-scale decentralized water production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4):1187-1201, May 2010. (doi link) (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “The thermophysical properties of seawater: A review of existing correlations and data,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:354-380, April 2010. (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Thermodynamic analysis of humidification-dehumidification desalination cycles,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:339-353, April 2010. (pdf)

A.E. Bergles, J.H. Lienhard V, G.E. Kendall, and P. Griffith, “Boiling and Evaporation in Small Diameter Channels,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 24(1):18-40, 2003. (Open access doi)

X. Liu, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.S. Lombara, “Convective Heat Transfer by Impingement of Circular Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, 113(3):571-582, 1991. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V and C.W. Van Atta, “The decay of turbulence in thermally stratified flow,” J. Fluid Mechanics, 210:57-112, Jan. 1990. (pdf) (Link to details) (doi)